Disability is a term that combines various violations, restrictions on activity and possible participation in society. Violations are problems that arise in the functions or structures of the body; activity restrictions – these are difficulties experienced by a person in completing any tasks or actions; while participation restrictions are problems experienced by a person when involved in life situations.
Disability is not just a health problem. This is a complex phenomenon that reflects the interaction between the characteristics of the human body and the characteristics of the society in which this person lives. To overcome the difficulties faced by people with disabilities, measures are needed to remove environmental barriers and social barriers.
People with disabilities have the same medical needs as people without disabilities, such as immunization needs, cancer screening, and others. Their health may be more vulnerable due to poverty and social exclusion and also because of their higher risk of developing secondary conditions such as pressure sores or urinary tract infections. Evidence suggests that in many places people with disabilities face barriers to accessing the health and rehabilitation services they need.
Main types and concepts of disability groups
There are many diseases that adversely affect the work of certain organs or the whole organism. Based on this, the examination determines the degree of disability, taking into account the factors causing disability or the absence of other vital abilities of the patient.
These violations are classified into several groups:
- Speech. Attacks of stuttering, difficulty in learning the rules of writing, lack of verbal or non-verbal speech;
- Statodynamic. Disorders of the musculoskeletal system (restriction in the movement of the head, trunk or limbs, as well as violations of the vestibular apparatus);
- Physical deformity. It includes strong changes in the structure of the body or its organs, including disturbances in the size of body parts that impede normal functioning. This includes pathologies that characterize the presence of serious diseases of the genitourinary and digestive systems, respiratory organs;
- Psychological disorders. Serious memory impairment, lack of adequate perception of space and the world, normal thinking;
- Sensory. Partial or complete absence of smell, sight or hearing. Non-standard sensitivity to pain and temperature perception;
- Disturbed digestive and circulatory system, metabolism.
Main causes of disability
To date, many citizens have come across such a concept as disability in accordance with the corresponding form of the general disease. Such a decision is influenced by several factors that few know about, so this wording does not raise additional questions among citizens.
The list of diseases that lead to disability include:
- Injuries sustained in the workplace and leading to serious defects in the functioning of organs or the whole organism, as well as certain parts of the body;
- Occupational diseases;
- Pathologies and complications of a congenital nature;
- Occupational diseases, serious injuries or injuries sustained during service or military operations.
You may be considered disabled if you:
- have impaired health with persistent dysfunction of the body due to diseases, consequences of injuries or defects;
- have complete or partial loss of your ability to self-service, to move independently, navigate, communicate, control your behavior, learn or engage in labor activities;
- need social protection measures, including rehabilitation and habilitation.
The decision on considering a person disabled is made based on the results of a medical and social examination.