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Zithromax is an antibiotic of the macrolide group. It has a bacteriostatic effect, namely, it inhibits the growth of pathogens. This antibiotic is active against a wide range of germs. The mechanism of action is associated with the suppression of protein production in microbe cells. In high concentrations, it can have a bactericidal (killing microbes) effect.
Each tablet of this preparation contains 250 mg (500 mg) of the active substance – azithromycin, as well as excipients – microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, talc, sodium lauryl sulfate, corn starch, magnesium stearate, polyvinyl alcohol, titanium dioxide, macrogol, E129 dyes, E102.
Zithromax (Azithromycin) is indicated for use in infectious processes caused by microbes sensitive to this antibiotic:
- infections of the ENT organs;
- upper respiratory tract (inflammation of the sinuses – sinusitis, tonsils – tonsillitis, pharynx – pharyngitis, ear – otitis media, nose – rhinitis, larynx – laryngitis, trachea – tracheitis);
- lower respiratory tract infections (acute inflammation of the bronchi – bronchitis, lungs – pneumonia);
- infections of soft tissues, skin (impetigo, secondarily infected dermatosis, erysipelas, acne vulgaris);
- migratory EMA – the initial symptom of borreliosis (Lyme disease);
- urinary tract infection provoked by Chlamydia infection (inflammation of the urethra – urethritis, cervical – cervicitis).
Dosage and administration
Zithromax needs to be swallowed whole, washed down with water.
The required dose is taken once a day for an hour before or 2 hours after a meal. Adult patients (including the elderly), children over 12 years old (or weighing less than 45 kg) with infections of the ENT organs, lower or upper respiratory tract, soft tissues, skin, are prescribed 0.5 g/day for 1 dose for 3 days (dose per course – 1.5 g). With erythema migrans (at the beginning of Lyme disease) on the 1st day – 1 g at a time, from the 2nd to the 5th day – 0.5 g daily (dose for a 5-day course is 3 g).
For acne vulgaris, apply 0.5 g/day for 1 dose for 3 days, then 0.5 g/day once a week for 9 weeks (6 g per course). The first weekly pill should be taken 7 days after taking the first daily pill (that is, 8 days from the treatment onset), the next 8 weekly tablets are taken at intervals of 7 days.
With chlamydial infections of the genitourinary tract (infection with Chlamydia trachomatis), for example, with uncomplicated cervicitis, urethritis, 1 g is prescribed once.
Prescribing Zithromax to people with impaired renal function: for moderate impairment (creatinine excretion rate> 40 ml/min), a dose adjustment of this antibiotic is not necessary.
In the case of a single missed intake of one dose, the missed dose should be taken as early as possible, the next – with an interval of 24 hours.
Symptoms of an overdose: urge to vomit, temporary hearing loss, frequent and loose stools.
Overdose treatment: urgent gastric lavage, including intake of sorbents (activated carbon), symptomatic treatment.
Zithromax should not be taken with:
- hypersensitivity (allergies) to macrolide antibiotics;
- severe impairment of the kidneys, liver (their insufficiency);
- the age under 12 years old (or weighing less than 45 kg), while taking ergotamine, dihydroergotamine.
- Zithromax should be used with caution for moderate impairment of the kidneys, liver, arrhythmias, predisposition to arrhythmias, lengthening of the Q-T interval (on an ECG, during therapy with terfenadine, digoxin, warfarin.
Pregnancy and lactation
During pregnancy, Zithromax is prescribed only when the need for treatment of the mother exceeds the possible risks for the child. This antibiotic can be excreted in breast milk, so it is not used during lactation. Otherwise, the temporary cessation of breastfeeding is being done.
- Disorders of the circulatory, lymphatic systems: a decrease in the number of platelets (thrombocytopenia), neutrophilic leukocytes (neutropenia).
- Disorders of the central nervous system: vertigo (dizziness), convulsions, cephalalgia (headache), paresthesia (tingling sensation, crawling, burning sensation on the skin), drowsiness, weakness, insomnia, increased motor activity, aggressiveness, nervousness, anxiety.
- Perceptual disorders: reversible hearing impairment, deafness, tinnitus, impaired perception of taste, smell.
- Disorders of the cardiovascular system: rhythm disturbance (arrhythmia, palpitations, ventricular (ventricular) tachycardia, the extension of the Q-T interval on the ECG, bidirectional ventricular tachycardia).
- Digestive tract disorders: stool disorders (constipation, diarrhea), nausea, abdominal pain/cramps, flatulence (bloating), anorexia (lack of appetite), discoloration of the tongue, inflammation of the colon (pseudomembranous colitis), cholestatic jaundice (due to impaired bile outflow), hepatitis (liver inflammation), a change in laboratory liver tests, liver failure, liver necrosis (decay), sometimes fatal.
- Allergic reactions: angioedema (rapid swelling of the face, lips, tongue with respiratory failure), itching, rash, urticaria, photosensitivity (sensitivity to the sun), anaphylactic shock (fatal in rare cases), erythema multiforme, allergic contact dermatitis.
- Movement disorders: arthralgia (joint pain).
- Genitourinary disorders: nephritis (inflammation of the kidneys), acute kidney failure.
- Other: candidiasis (fungal infection), vaginitis (vaginal inflammation).