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Skin Melanoma

Skin melanoma belongs to the category of human malignant neoplasms. It accounts for 1-4% of the total cancer rate. The incidence of skin melanoma is increasing annually. In the USA, over the past 2 years, the rate has almost doubled. The vast majority of patients are aged 30-50 years. In women of this age, it develops mainly on the lower extremities (lower leg), in men – on the corpus (usually the back); in individuals of both sexes of the older age group (65 years and older), melanoma is localized mainly on the face.


There are two types of moles:

Causes and risk factors for melanoma

There are a number of reasons, risk factors that play a significant role in the onset and development of skin melanoma. They can be exogenous and endogenous in nature. These include:

Skin types

The sensitivity of the skin to sunlight depends on its type. There are 6 types of skin:

  1. white skin, freckles, red hair, blue eyes;
  2. skin not prone to tanning without freckles;
  3. skin prone to tanning – dark hair, brown eyes;
  4. dark skin of the Mediterranean type;
  5. very dark skin (Indians);
  6. black skin (Africans).

More often, skin cancer and melanoma occur under the influence of the radiant energy of the sun in individuals with photosensitivity of type 1 and type 2 skin, with difficulty sunbathing and easily getting sunburn.

Studies have shown that melanoma is more common and worse in blondes and redheads and is rare in the black population, usually affecting only the skin of fingers and toes or palms and soles. Melanomas are not observed at all in castrated for some reason men and women.

Clinic and diagnosis of melanoma

Three stages of skin melanoma are conditionally distinguished:

Detection of skin melanoma in its very early stages (early melanoma) contributes to its practical cure.

Since the connection of melanoma with moles, pigmented nevus is quite high, the initial symptoms of its manifestation may be as follows:


The main methods of treating melanoma are:

The choice of this or that method is determined by the stage of the tumor process, the features of its course, the localization of the primary focus, the general condition of the patient.

The main way to prevent the development of melanomas is the timely removal of nevus pigmentosa in those places where they are systematically exposed to trauma. Absolute indicators for the removal of nevus are:

Prevention and protection measures

Clinical manifestations of the disease, fostering personal responsibility for their own health is the most important condition in the prevention of melanoma.

It is better to minimize the use of radiation therapy, inhalation, especially blondes and people with fair skin.

Avoiding exposure to the midday sun, especially by the sea, in tropical and subtropical countries. The time from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. is better spent in the shade of trees.

Compliance with safety regulations in production and in institutions with the presence of cancerogenic and chemical substances; conducting systematic medical and preventive examinations at such enterprises and institutions.

Immediate appeal to a specialist in case of a change in color, size of nevi or the appearance of a new pigment formation on the skin.