Obesity is a disease that is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the body resulting in an increase in body weight. In most cases, obesity develops due to excessive food intake (90% of cases), reduced energy expenditure (sedentary lifestyle) and metabolic disorders.
Obesity is characterized as an increase in body weight by 20% or more from the norm, due to adipose tissue growth. This disease causes not only psychophysical discomfort but also causes diseases of the spine, joints, sexual and other disorders. Obesity increases the risk of developing such life-threatening diseases as atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stroke, myocardial infarction, kidney and liver diseases. In addition, obesity can result in disability. Diseases such as influenza, acute respiratory viral infections, pneumonia, and many other diseases in patients with obesity are more difficult to treat and longer to persist accompanied often with a number of complications.
The development of obesity is caused by:
- frequent overeating;
- improper nutrition (eating at night, excessive intake of carbohydrates, fats, salt, soda, alcohol, and other unhealthy and harmful foods);
- inactive lifestyle (for example, sedentary work);
- hereditary predisposition;
- nervous system diseases (damage to the brain area responsible for eating behavior);
- endocrine gland diseases (tumors, hypothyroidism, hypogonadism);
- taking certain medications (hormones, antidepressants, etc.);
- insomnia, stress;
- physiological conditions (pregnancy, lactation, menopause).
The obesity degree is determined by body mass index. Body mass index (BMI) is calculated by the formula: body weight (kg)/height (m) squared. The norm is considered BMI = 18.5-25 kg/m2.\
Preobesity. This stage is characterized by the presence of 25-29.9% of excess weight compared with the norm. It is considered the initial stage, the main symptoms of obesity are absent. This state can be corrected by keeping proper nutrition and performing physical exercises.
Obesity of 1 degree. It is characterized by the presence of 30-34.9% of excessive weight. This degree is already more pronounced. It is often regarded not as a disease, but as a beauty defect. The first signs of obesity begin to appear – swelling, excessive sweating, shortness of breath, etc. This is the stage at which it is necessary to begin to take measures to fight excess weight.
Obesity of the 2 degree. This stage is characterized by the presence of 35-39.9% of excess weight. This degree is already expressed even more clearly. Significant body fat is visible. There are symptoms of obesity, decreased performance and physical activity. With this degree, it is necessary to urgently fight overweight because it can quickly develop into the third degree of obesity.
Obesity of the 3 degree. It is characterized by the presence of 40% or more excess weight. This degree is very easy to determine. At this stage, almost all the symptoms of obesity are manifested: shortness of breath, even when calm, swelling of the legs, headaches, cardiovascular system disorders, etc. It becomes difficult for a person to take care of himself. It is urgent to contact specialists such as an endocrinologist and a nutritionist and begin treatment immediately.
Obesity treatment, i.e. weight loss is carried out comprehensively and includes:
- physical activity;
- medications (as prescribed by the doctor);
- treatment of complications (if any appears).
For the treatment of 1 and 2 degrees of obesity, proper nutrition and exercise are enough to improve the condition.
It is necessary to limit the use of fatty, sweet and fast foods. In this diet, you need to focus on fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and minerals. The diet is fractional, in small portions with light snacks between main meals. The last meal should be no later than 3-4 hours before bedtime.
If weight loss, at some stage of the correct diet, stops, then you can have a fasting day 1 time per week, but only after consulting a doctor. Consult a nutritionist to choose the right diet. It is not recommended to use starvation and improper diets, as this in the future can not only aggravate the treatment of obesity but also cause damage to health!
Physical activity does not imply gym visits, although if health allows, it is better to do so. You need to start doing daily morning exercises, going for walks in the fresh air, swimming, riding a bike, playing volleyball, soccer or badminton. The loads should not be excessive, the duration and intensity must be increased gradually.
The following recommendations must be met to reduce weight:
- drink 1 glass of warm water every morning on an empty stomach;
- replace black tea with green;
- drink freshly squeezed fruit and vegetable juices;
- eat fresh fruits, vegetables, and herbs (at least 500 g daily);
- do not eat fresh bread – replace it with yesterday’s bread, and preferably with crackers;
- it is better to stew or bake dishes (it is important to exclude fried foods);
- get a fasting day once a week;
- do sport.
Obesity is a chronic disease. This is possible only through lifestyle changes – the gradual formation of the necessary skills for a healthy diet and an increase in motor activity. Make an appointment with medical specialists practicing in the field of weight loss and physical loadings will make this process easier, as physiological and effective as possible. Even modest attempts to engage in physical exercises, practice a balanced diet and vitamin-mineral complexes will improve your health, regardless of whether they contribute to weight loss or not.