Pharmacogenomics is a new and rapidly developing science. Individual drug reactions depend on heredity and are often different among representatives of different populations. Identification of genetic variations in biological samples allows for communication with certain drug reactions. Information about the gene-drug reaction relationship is then included in special pharmacogenomic databases useful in drug development and in prescribing drug therapy.
The role of pharmacogenomics in medicine
In the modern world, many drugs are prescribed as if they worked equally well for all people. But due to different ages, health status, body constitution, gender, genetic differences, and other factors, people do not always respond equally to drug therapy.
Molecular biological foundations of pharmacogenomics
Personalization of therapy, taking into account heredity, requires knowledge of the molecular genetic differences between people, namely, changes in DNA fragments encoding proteins that interact with drug molecules.
The carriers of hereditary information in cells are chromosomes – complex molecular complexes consisting of DNA and proteins. DNA stores and transmits hereditary information in the form of a sequence of nucleotides (polymer), consisting of residues of sugar (deoxyribose), phosphoric acid and one of four nitrogenous bases: guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine. In certain nucleotide sequences – genes – information about the aminoacid sequences in proteins is contained; the rule by which this encoding occurs is called the genetic code.